Let's consider the following problems you all learned how to solve when you were little kids: adding and multiplying integers. Today we will consider the following questions: given two integers $x,y$ each with $n$ digits, what is the fastest algorithm for adding them? What about multiplying?

```
1 11 11
18945 18945 18945 18945 18945
23401 23401 23401 23401 23401
_____ _____ _____ _____ _____
6 46 346 2346 42346
```

In [13]:

```
# we've already memorized how to add single digits to each other
# additionTable[i][j] gives result of i+j for single digits i, j
additionTable = [
['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9'], # 0 + ...
['1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10'], # 1 + ...
['2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', '11'], # 2 + ...
['3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', '11', '12'], # 3 + ...
['4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', '11', '12', '13'], # 4 + ...
['5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', '11', '12', '13', '14'], # 5 + ...
['6', '7', '8', '9', '10', '11', '12', '13', '14', '15'], # 6 + ...
['7', '8', '9', '10', '11', '12', '13', '14', '15', '16'], # 7 + ...
['8', '9', '10', '11', '12', '13', '14', '15', '16', '17'], # 8 + ...
['9', '10', '11', '12', '13', '14', '15', '16', '17', '18'] # 9 + ...
]
# we also memorized how to count from 0 to 19
increment = ['1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', '11', '12', '13', '14', '15', '16', '17', '18', '19']
# convert a list of single characters into a string by concatenating them
def listToString(L):
s = ''
for x in L:
s += x
return s
def stripLeadingZeroes(s):
i = 0
while i<len(s) and s[i]=='0':
i += 1
if i == len(s):
return '0'
else:
return s[i:]
# take as input x,y as strings of digits
def add(x, y):
if len(x) < len(y):
x = '0'*(len(y)-len(x)) + x
else:
y = '0'*(len(x)-len(y)) + y
# now both numbers are n digits
# the answer will have either n+1 or n digits
n = len(x)
# we start adding from the rightmost digit
i = n-1
carry = 0
result = ['0']*(n+1)
while i >= 0:
d = additionTable[int(x[i])][int(y[i])]
if carry == 1:
d = increment[int(d)]
result[i+1] = d[len(d)-1]
if len(d) == 2:
carry = 1
else:
carry = 0
i -= 1
if carry == 1:
result[0] = '1'
return listToString(stripLeadingZeroes(result))
```

In [14]:

```
add('55', '92')
```

Out[14]:

In [15]:

```
add('7', '8')
```

Out[15]:

In [16]:

```
add('14', '3010')
```

Out[16]:

In [17]:

```
add('23','51')
```

Out[17]:

How many steps does it take to add $x$ and $y$, each being at most $n$ digits? It scales linearly with $n$. Padding zeroes to make them the same length takes at most $n$ steps. Then the `while`

loop goes on for $n$ steps, and each iteration in the `while`

loop we only do a constant amount of work.

**Total time**: $O(n)$

```
123 123 123 123 123
241 241 241 241 241
___ ___ ____ _____ ______
123 123 5043 5043 29643
492 246
```

In [18]:

```
multiplicationTable = [ # we memorized x*y for x,y being single digits
['0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0', '0'],
['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9'],
['0', '2', '4', '6', '8', '10', '12', '14', '16', '18'],
['0', '3', '6', '9', '12', '15', '18', '21', '24', '27'],
['0', '4', '8', '12', '16', '20', '24', '28', '32', '36'],
['0', '5', '10', '15', '20', '25', '30', '35', '40', '45'],
['0', '6', '12', '18', '24', '30', '36', '42', '48', '54'],
['0', '7', '14', '21', '28', '35', '42', '49', '56', '63'],
['0', '8', '16', '24', '32', '40', '48', '56', '64', '72'],
['0', '9', '18', '27', '36', '45', '54', '63', '72', '81']
]
# c is a single digit number, and x is arbitrary length. return c*x.
# c and x are strings
def multiplyDigit(c, x):
result = ['0']*(len(x)+1)
carry = '0'
i = len(x)-1
while i >= 0:
d = multiplicationTable[int(c)][int(x[i])]
d = add(d, carry)
result[i+1] = d[len(d)-1]
if len(d) == 2:
carry = d[0]
else:
carry = '0'
i -= 1
return listToString(stripLeadingZeroes(result))
# again x,y are strings of digits
def multiply(x, y):
# make x and y have the same length
if len(x) < len(y):
x = '0'*(len(y)-len(x)) + x
else:
y = '0'*(len(x)-len(y)) + y
n = len(x)
result = '0'
i = n-1
zeroes = ''
while i >= 0:
result = add(result, multiplyDigit(y[i], x) + zeroes)
zeroes += '0'
i -= 1
return result
```

In [19]:

```
multiply('11', '12')
```

Out[19]:

In [20]:

```
multiply('24', '451')
```

Out[20]:

How many steps does it take to multiply $x$ and $y$, each being at most $n$ digits? We do $n$ additions, each time to numbers that are at most $2n$ digits long (since we pad with the `zeroes`

variable, which has at most $n$ zeroes). Each addition thus takes $O(n)$ time.

**Total time**: $O(n^2)$

Addition and multiplication are both basic arithmetic operations, but one takes $\approx n$ steps while the other takes $\approx n^2$. Maybe we are just using the wrong algorithm? After all, these aren't the *only* algorithms for addition and multiplication.

For example: for addition, we could add $x+y$ by incrementing $x$ repeatedly, $y$ times. The running time would then be $O(y)$. Unfortunately if $y$ is $n$ digits, it could be as big as $10^n-1$ ($n$ $9$'s in a row), so this running time, in terms of $n$, could be as bad as $\approx 10^n$, which is $\gg n$. So the grade school algorithm is better than this naive algorithm of repeated increments. Maybe there's something smarter for multiplication than the grade school algorithm?

The story goes that Andrey Kolmogorov, a giant of probability theory and other areas of mathematics, had a conjecture from 1956 stating that it is impossible to multiply two $n$-digit numbers much faster than $n^2$ time. In 1960, Kolmogorov told many mathematicians his conjecture at a seminar at Moscow State University, and Karatsuba, then in the audience, went home and disproved Kolmogorovâ€™s conjecture in exactly one week 1. Letâ€™s now cover the method he came up with.

The basic idea is something called *divide-and-conquer*, which we also saw with `MergeSort`

.

Suppose we want to multiply $x$ and $y$. Let's look at a concrete example.

```
44729013 x 10022889
```

Here $x = 44729013, y = 10022889$. We begin by splitting the digits in half and writing

$x = 4472\times 10^4 + 9013 = x_{hi}\times 10^4 + x_{lo}$,

$y = 1002\times 10^4 + 2889 = y_{hi}\times 10^4 + y_{lo}$

Then

$x\cdot y = (x_{hi}\times 10^4 + x_{lo})\times (y_{hi}\times 10^4 + y_{lo}) = x_{hi}y_{hi} 10^8 + (x_{hi}y_{lo} + x_{lo}y_{hi})10^4 + x_{lo}y_{lo}$

In other words, to multiply one pair of $8$ digit numbers $x$ and $y$, we just need to multiply four pairs of $4$-digit numbers: $x_{hi}y_{hi}$, $x_{hi}y_{lo}$, $x_{lo}y_{hi}$, $x_{lo}y_{lo}$. This gives us a recursive algorithm! The base case is when the number of digits is $1$, and then we can just use our `multiplicationTable`

.

In [21]:

```
def multiplyRecursive(x, y):
# let's first make sure both x,y have the same number of digits,
n = max(len(x), len(y))
x = '0'*(n-len(x)) + x
y = '0'*(n-len(y)) + y
if n == 1:
return multiplicationTable[int(x)][int(y)]
xlo = x[n//2:]
ylo = y[n//2:]
xhi = x[:n//2]
yhi = y[:n//2]
A = multiplyRecursive(xhi, yhi)
B = multiplyRecursive(xlo, ylo)
C = multiplyRecursive(xhi, ylo)
D = multiplyRecursive(xlo, yhi)
result = A + '0'*(2*len(xlo))
result = add(result, add(C, D)+'0'*len(xlo))
result = add(result, B)
return result
```

In [22]:

```
# sanity check
print(multiplyRecursive('11', '12') == multiply('11', '12'))
print(multiplyRecursive('24', '451') == multiply('24', '451'))
```

We can analyze what is called a *recurrence relation*. Let $T(n)$ be the total number of steps to multiply two $n$-digit numbers using the function `multiplyRecursive`

. Then $T(1) = 1$ (since we just look answer up in a table), and otherwise

$T(n) = 4 T(n/2) + O(n)$

Let us assume here that $n$ is a perfect power of $2$, so as we keep dividing by $2$ we are always left with an integer; this just makes our lives easier (but it turns out the same kind of analysis holds in general).

Total work across all levels: $n + 2n + 4n + \ldots + 2^L n$ where $L$ is the number of levels of this recursion tree before we get to the base case of $1$ digit. What is $L$?

$L$ is such that $n/2^L = 1$, so $L = \log_2 n$. Thus the running time is

$n (2^0 + 2^1 + \ldots + 2^{\log_2 n}) = n (2n - 1) = 2n^2 - n$

**Total time**: $O(n^2)$

Save on multiplications: instead of $4$ recursive calls, only have $3$! The key insight is that the three values we actually need are:

$A = x_{hi} y_{hi}$

$B = x_{lo} y_{lo}$

and

$Z = x_{lo}y_{hi} + x_{hi} y_{lo}$

We obtained $A$ and $B$ directly, and we naively calculated $Z$ using two recursive multiplication calls, for a total of four calls. How can we get away with three calls? The trick is to define

$E = (x_{lo} + x_{hi}) \times (y_{lo} + y_{hi})$.

Then we can obtain $Z$ as $E - A - B$. Thus we only need to do three recursive calls, and some extra subtractions, but subtractions are as cheap as additions! (only $O(n)$ time)

Total work across all levels: $n + \frac 32 n + (\frac 32)^2 n + \ldots + (\frac 32)^L n$ where $L$ is the number of levels of this recursion tree before we get to the base case of $1$ digit. What is $L$ now?

$L$ didn't change, since we still divide $n$ by $2$ at each recursive level! So $L$ is still such that $n/2^L = 1$, so $L = \log_2 n$. Thus the running time is $n \cdot \sum_{k=0}^{\log_2 n} (\frac 32)^k = n \cdot \left(\frac{(\frac 32)^{\log_2 n} - 1}{\frac 12}\right)$

Now, for some arithmetic $\ldots$

$(\frac 32)^{\log_2 n} = (2^{\log_2 \frac 32})^{\log_2 n} = (2^{\log_2 n})^{\log_2 \frac 32} = n^{\log_2 \frac 32} = n^{(\log_2 3) - (\log_2 2)} = n^{(\log_2 3) - 1}$

Therefore $n \cdot \left(\frac{(\frac 32)^{\log_2 n} - 1}{\frac 12}\right) = n \cdot \frac{n^{(\log_2 3) - 1} - 1}{\frac 12} = 2n^{\log_2 3} - 2n$.

**Total time**: $O(n^{\log_2 3}) = O(n^{1.585\ldots})$

In [23]:

```
# doing subtraction by hand is similar to addition. we'll leave doing it from scratch as an exercise for you, and
# here we will just "cheat" and use Python's built-in subtraction
def subtract(x, y):
return str(int(x) - int(y))
def karatsuba(x, y):
n = max(len(x), len(y))
x = '0'*(n-len(x)) + x
y = '0'*(n-len(y)) + y
if n == 1:
return multiplicationTable[int(x)][int(y)]
xlo = x[n//2:]
ylo = y[n//2:]
xhi = x[:n//2]
yhi = y[:n//2]
A = karatsuba(xhi, yhi)
B = karatsuba(xlo, ylo)
E = karatsuba(add(xlo, xhi), add(ylo, yhi))
result = A + '0'*(2*len(xlo))
result = add(result, subtract(E, add(A, B))+'0'*len(xlo))
result = add(result, B)
return result
```

In [24]:

```
print(karatsuba('11', '12') == multiply('11', '12'))
print(karatsuba('24', '451') == multiply('24', '451'))
```